Have you ever noticed that learning something new can seem quite simple at times but more difficult on other occasions? Often, access to prior knowledge is the difference. By activating prior knowledge, teachers can make learning easier for students.
In this article, we’ll describe prior knowledge and why it might make learning new things quicker and more efficient. We’ll also look at some strategies and examples for activating prior knowledge.
What is Prior Knowledge?
Prior knowledge refers to the information and educational environment that a student possesses before learning new material. An individual’s schema refers to their organization, storage and recall of prior information.
When students lack sufficient prior information, learning relies on building a schema from the ground up instead of using existing foundations. As a result, new learning can be challenging and exhausting. A learner’s ability to generate new information is ultimately hampered if they lack past knowledge.
Taking advantage of existing knowledge before working on a topic can increase a learner’s comprehension and academic literacy. In a specific domain, activating prior knowledge relies on facts, rules and relationships between concepts.
Prior knowledge has long been thought to be the most influential factor for academic learning and performance. Both information acquisition and the ability to use high-order cognitive problem-solving skills are positively influenced by the amount and quality of past knowledge.
Research on Prior Knowledge
With English language learners (ELLs) for example, Jana Echevarria and Deborah Short discovered that utilizing and building past knowledge is critical to enhancing educational proficiency.
According to Carnegie Mellon psychologists, learning anything new is easier when we can connect it to something that we already know.
Other research, such as the article “Prior knowledge activation: Inducing engagement with informational texts”, backs up the premise that prior knowledge activation is an important phase in the learning experience. Access to prior knowledge was found to be crucial to reading comprehension.
Examples of Activating Prior Knowledge
To explain how you might activate prior knowledge, let’s start with a couple of examples.
Example 1. Learning the meaning of “prior knowledge”
This article offers a good example in itself of using prior knowledge. You might not have known the concept of prior knowledge beforehand.
But you would understand what the word “prior” means (before). And you know that “knowledge” is about information.
By attempting to relate both words, you may quickly figure out what prior knowledge loosely means. Your initial concept is hopefully being refined as your brain processes the information you are reading.
If you didn’t know what either of those words meant before you found the article, you probably wouldn’t have made much progress yet. Looking up and understanding the words would have slowed you down from the start.
Example 2. Transferring Concepts Between Sports
Here is another example. Maureen is learning how to play soccer. She is already aware that basketball players have offensive and defensive responsibilities.
In soccer, the concept of offense and defense is a little different because teams have people who exclusively play offense and others who just play defense. Nonetheless, because she had some previous experience with this concept in the sport of basketball, her brain is able to relate it to the new concept in soccer.
Maureen’s learning and understanding of the sport of soccer is made easier because of her previous knowledge of basketball. She quickly adapts to running back and marking up players when asked to play defence. When moved into offence, she instinctively knows to try to create space between herself and opposition players.
Strategies to Activate Prior Knowledge
You can use strategies to activate prior knowledge deliberately. Indeed, any teacher should instinctively try to do this when introducing challenging new material. These are some well-established strategies for activating prior knowledge that can easily be modified and applied less formally if you want.
1. Anticipation guide
An anticipation guide is a set of ideas about a topic created by the teacher that students answer before learning or reading about the subject. They’re frequently set out as a list of assertions with which students must agree or disagree. This can be done verbally or in writing.
Teachers can use an anticipation guide to determine the main content on which students will focus during the class. It’s a good idea to have students examine their anticipation guides towards the end of each module to evaluate how their thoughts have changed.
2. Preparatory texts
Providing easy preparatory texts can be highly beneficial in establishing reading confidence and background knowledge. As a strategy to establish knowledge on the subject, teachers can present simplified texts that address subjects or ideas similar to those in more complicated works.
3. Concept map
A concept map is a visual representation of a structured overview. It is a representation of a topic’s essential terms and concepts. The subtopics are connected by lines, indicating their link to the main idea and to one another. The general main points are often in the center, with lines connecting the specifics or examples to these main points.
Such a diagrammatic presentation of a topic facilitates the integration of new information with prior knowledge. Teachers can use a concept map to present a topic, determine what learner’s know about the topic, and provide a foundation for further study.